As a teenager, Keoni Gandall already was operating a cutting-edge research laboratory in his bedroom in Huntington Beach, California. While his friends were buying computer games, he acquired more than a dozen pieces of equipment - a transilluminator, a centrifuge, two thermocyclers - in pursuit of a hobby that once was the province of PhDs in institutional labs.
Scottish scientists from the same institute that created Dolly the Sheep have genetically modified pigs that are resistant to one of the world's costliest livestock diseases. But the breakthrough by scientists from the University of Edinburgh "poses a headache for ministers, because the technology for carrying out gene surgery on livestock is advancing so rapidly that public opinion and the law have not caught up", says The Times.
NHGRI began as the Office of Human Genome Research in The Office of the Director in 1988. This Office transitioned to the National Center for Human Genome Research (NCHGR), in 1989 to carry out the role of the NIH in the International Human Genome Project (HGP).
In contrast, the study of typically non-medical phenotypes such as the genetics of eye color would be considered part of human genetics, but not necessarily relevant to medical genetics (except in situations such as albinism). Genetic medicine is a newer term for medical genetics and incorporates areas such as gene therapy, personalized medicine, and the rapidly emerging new medical specialty, predictive medicine.